If you think you know all about daffodils, consider that there are over 50 species and according to the National Daffodil Society (NDS), there are "...over 25,000 registered cultivars (named hybrids) divided among the thirteen divisions of the official classification system." There's more to daffodils than the pretty yellow trumpet flowers that cheer up the spring landscape.
There's been a lot of confusion about whether all Narcissus were daffodils, but the NDS has put the matter to rest by saying the terms are synonymous. The botanical name, Narcissus, should be used for scientific writing and daffodil everywhere else. So daffodil it is.
Daffodils are long-lived bulbous perennial plants with spring blooming flowers that can naturalize and live for many years.
■ Leaves: Basal, semi-erect to arching leaves are either strap-shaped or cylindrical.
■ Flowers: Six petals surround a corona or cup, which can be flat, round or trumpeted. Petals are usually yellow or white. Cups can be yellow, red, orange, green or pink.
Daffodil hardiness will vary slightly with varieties and exposure, but most daffodils are reliable within USDA Hardiness Zones 3- 8. Most daffodils need a cold period, to set blooms, but certain divisions of daffodils will grow in warmer climates, especially if given sufficient water.
Full sun to partial shade. Daffodils bloom best in full sun, but a little dabbled spring shade shouldn't affect them greatly.
Each variety of daffodil will have it's own mature height and spread, but in general expect them to reach 12 - 18 inches (h) x 6 - 9 inches (w)
All Daffodils bloom in the spring, but you can prolong their bloom period by planting early, mid, and late spring varieties.
Using Daffodils in the Garden:
Big sunny clusters of daffodils are an arresting sight in spring, but they are followed by large clusters of yellowing foliage. Although they look stunning paired with purple hyacinth or some of the vivid pinks, an all bulb planting can quickly become an eyesore.
Interplanting with a grassy type plant, like liriope, will allow you to create large drifts, outside of the flower beds. Within the beds, the fading foliage is not as big a problem, since the rest of your garden should be emerging from dormancy as the daffodils fade.
The leaves need to be exposed to sunlight, so don't braid them to make them look tidier. You can, however, slightly flatten them between other plants, to partially hide them.
Daffodil Growing Tips: For us this has to be done in the fall.
Soil: Daffodil plants prefer a neutral to slightly acidic soil pH of 6.0 - 7.0. As with most bulbs, they require excellent drainage. Since daffodils survive for years, you'll want to find a spot where they do not have to sit in water logged soil.
Planting Daffodil Bulbs: Plant the bulbs pointed end up. Rule of thumb says to plant them twice as deep as they are wide. Three to 5 inches is about right. You can add bulb food or bone meal at planting time, to get the bulbs off to a good start. Water well and keep them watered, whenever the soil dries out.
Maintenance: Daffodils require minimal maintenance. They like to be watered regularly in the spring and fall. If there is no snow cover, the corms will also need water throughout the winter. Stop watering about 3-4 weeks after the flowers fade. They go dormant during the summer and prefer a drier soil.
Fertilizer: Daffodils are pretty self-sufficient, but if you have poor soil or the plants aren't flowering as much as they should, top dress with bulb food or bone meal, when the leaves first emerge. Lightly feed again when they flower.
Dividing Daffodils: Daffodils can easily out-live you and may bloom and spread for decades. However sometimes they abruptly stop blooming, a condition called going "blind". It may be an insect problem, too much shade or perhaps they have moved too far down in the soil and need to be lifted. If you want to divide your daffodil bulbs, lift them after they have finished flowering and replant asap.
Pests & Problems of Daffodils: Most pests steer clear of daffodils. An exception is the Narcissus fly which feeds on the flower buds. Especially DEER don't like them.
taken from https://www.thespruce.com/planting-and-growing-daffodils
Till next time, this is Becky Litterer from Becky's Greenhouse, Dougherty, Iowa